Dee's Blog

Psychotherapy and the Brain

While psychotherapy is primarily focused on addressing mental and emotional concerns, its impact extends far beyond the mind. Recent research has shed light on the profound neurological changes that can occur as a result of psychotherapy.

Neuroplasticity and Neural Pathways

One of the key ways psychotherapy changes the brain is by promoting neuroplasticity, the brain's ability to reorganize and create new neural connections. Through techniques like cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), individuals can learn to restructure their thought patterns and behaviors, which can lead to physical changes in the brain's neural pathways.

Neurotransmitter Regulation

Additionally, psychotherapy has been found to influence the levels of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and dopamine, which play crucial roles in mood regulation and reward processing. By addressing imbalances in these neurotransmitters, psychotherapy can alleviate symptoms of depression, anxiety, and other mental health conditions.

Lasting Neurological Impact

The neurological changes induced by psychotherapy are not merely temporary; researchers have observed that these changes can persist long after the therapy has concluded. This highlights the potential for psychotherapy to have a lasting impact on an individual's mental and emotional well-being, as well as their overall brain function.


The field of neuroscience has provided valuable insights into the profound impact of psychotherapy on the brain. By promoting neuroplasticity, regulating neurotransmitter levels, and inducing lasting neurological changes, psychotherapy offers a powerful tool for addressing mental health concerns, fostering personal growth, and enhancing overall well-being.

The Importance of Psychotherapy

In today's fast-paced world, it's easy to overlook our mental well-being. However, psychotherapy plays a crucial role in maintaining a healthy mind and fostering personal growth. This blog post explores the significance of psychotherapy and why it should be considered an essential aspect of overall wellness.

Understanding Emotional Challenges

Life can present us with various emotional challenges, ranging from stress and anxiety to trauma and depression. Psychotherapy provides a safe and supportive space where individuals can explore their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors with a trained professional. Through this process, individuals can gain valuable insights into their inner selves, identify unhealthy patterns, and develop effective coping strategies.

Personal Growth and Self-Discovery

Psychotherapy is not solely about addressing mental health concerns; it also serves as a powerful tool for personal growth and self-discovery. By engaging in psychotherapy, individuals can deepen their self-awareness, explore their values and beliefs, and work towards achieving their full potential. This process can lead to improved relationships, increased confidence, and a greater sense of purpose.

Developing Coping Mechanisms

Life's challenges can often feel overwhelming, and without proper coping mechanisms, they can take a toll on our mental and physical well-being. Psychotherapy equips individuals with effective tools and strategies to manage stress, regulate emotions, and navigate difficult situations. By learning and practicing these coping mechanisms, individuals can develop resilience and the ability to bounce back from adversity.


Psychotherapy is a invaluable resource for promoting mental well-being, personal growth, and overall life satisfaction. By seeking the guidance of a trained professional, individuals can embark on a journey of self-exploration, gain insights into their thoughts and behaviors, and acquire the tools necessary to navigate life's challenges with greater ease and resilience.

Freudian Perspective on Narcissistic Personality Disorder

From a Freudian perspective, narcissistic personality disorder is viewed as stemming from arrested development at the narcissistic stage, where the individual fails to properly transition from primitive narcissism to mature object-love.

Role of Early Childhood Experiences

The Freudian approach holds that early childhood experiences and relationships, particularly with primary caregivers, play a significant role in shaping personality development and psychopathology later in life. With narcissism, it is theorized that deficiencies in parental empathy, mirroring, and appropriate frustration during that pivotal stage prevented the child from developing a cohesive sense of self separate from others.

Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy for Narcissists

Psychoanalytic psychotherapy aims to bring the unconscious motivations, defense mechanisms, and relational patterns into conscious awareness. For the narcissist, this could involve exploring the origins of their grandiose self-image, entitled expectations, lack of empathy, and sensitivity to criticism or narcissistic injury. The therapy relationship itself provides an opportunity to re-experience some of those early dynamics from childhood in a more reparative way.

Challenges in Treating Narcissists

However, from this perspective, narcissists can be notoriously resistant to psychotherapy due to their defenses against fragility in the self-concept. They may seek therapy only for externalization of blame rather than true self-exploration. Prolonged, intensive analysis is often required to make substantive progress.

What is EMDR?

EMDR stands for Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing. It is a form of psychotherapy that was originally developed in the late 1980s to treat post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it has since been adapted to treat other mental health issues as well.

The Core Idea Behind EMDR

The core idea behind EMDR is that it helps the brain reprocess and integrate distressing memories, thoughts and emotions related to traumatic experiences in an adaptive and healthy way. During EMDR sessions, the client is asked to briefly focus on the traumatic memory or disturbing issue while simultaneously experiencing bilateral sensory input, such as side-to-side eye movements guided by the therapist's hand or alternating sounds through headphones.

How EMDR Works

This bilateral stimulation is believed to help the client's brain to process the traumatic memory in a way that leads to a calmer, more resigned perspective. It essentially helps clients "unfreeze" their traumatic memories so they can be reintegrated and metabolized properly.

EMDR seems to facilitate the accessing of the traumatic memory network, so that information processing is enhanced, with new associations forged between the traumatic memory and more adaptive memory networks. This leads to new insights, peaceful resolution of disturbing issues and relief of associated symptoms.

EMDR Techniques

While the eye movements were the initial focus during early sessions, other types of left-right bilateral stimulation are often used now, such as tapping alternately on each side of the client's body. EMDR doesn't rely on extended exposure to control symptoms, but allowing the memory to become less emotionally charged.

Research and Effectiveness of EMDR

The therapy has been well-The therapy has been well researched and is recommended for PTSD treatment by many organizations. With an experienced therapist, EMDR can help clients reprocess distressing memories and experiences in a gentle, gradual way.

What is Mindfulness Therapy?

Mindfulness therapy refers to a range of therapeutic approaches that utilize mindfulness practices and principles to help clients develop present moment awareness and acceptance.

The Core of Mindfulness

At its core, mindfulness involves purposefully bringing one's attention to the here-and-now experience, with an attitude of openness, curiosity and non-judgment. Mindfulness practices like meditation, body scans and mindful movement cultivate sustained attentiveness to thoughts, emotions, physical sensations and the environment as they arise moment-to-moment.

Goals of Mindfulness Therapy

The goal of mindfulness therapy is to help clients relate to their inner experiences (thoughts, feelings, urges) with greater balance and equanimity, rather than becoming overwhelmed or reactive. It aims to interrupt conditioned mental habits like rumination and avoidance that can perpetuate psychological distress.

Through mindfulness, clients learn to observe the transient nature of thoughts and emotions, and not attach to or resist them so strongly. This cultivates self-awareness, emotion regulation skills, self-compassion and flexibility in perspective-taking.

Types of Mindfulness-Based Therapies

Some common mindfulness-based therapies include Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT), Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). While they have some variations, they all utilize mindfulness practices, psychoeducation, and cognitive strategies to change one's relationship to difficult thoughts and emotions.

Benefits of Mindfulness Therapy

Research has shown mindfulness approaches can be effective for conditions like anxiety, depression, chronic pain, addictions and eating disorders among others. By developing mindful presence, clients can learn to experience challenging mental states with greater acceptance and less reactivity.